Basic First Aid for Fractured Knee

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body and it consists of the femur, patella, tibial, tibial tuberosity and the fibula. Knee fractures are usually injuries caused by trauma and often incurred in traffic accidents and sports activities. While dealing broken bones requires professional medical attention, basic first aid care can help contain the injury and lessen the discomfort of the wounded.


You can identify a fracture by certain observations of the wound and the person. The first sign is when you see the person grimacing in intense pain and the pain worsens when the affected leg is moved. If it is a closed fracture, you would see swelling in the area and a bluish tinge in the skin which indicates internal bleeding caused by broken bones. However, for an open fracture, the bones have pierced through the skin and would protrude from the leg in an awkward angle with profuse bleeding from the open wound.

First Aid

  • The first thing to do is to check whether the person is conscious and breathing. If there is no sign of life, start CPF immediately and get someone to call the ambulance.
  • For any open wounds, stop the bleeding by applying pressure. This is an important step as major loss of blood may cause the person to go into shock. Some of the signs of shock are paleness and shortness of breath.
  • If the scene of the accident is on an open road, immobilize the injury before moving the person by making a splint out of a stiff material such as cardboard. Place it under the knee and tie it in place with cloth.
  • Once the person is in a safe environment to rest while waiting for medical help, prop up the injured leg to elevate it and keep the body warm with a blanket or jacket.
  • If it is possible to get ice, wrap it in plastic or a piece of cloth and apply to the parts of the skin that are not torn.

First Aid for Elbow Fracture

First Aid for Elbow Fracture

Our elbow is an integral component of our arm and it acts in the same manner as a door hinge, providing uninterrupted movements such as lifting and support. It also provides rotational capabilities for the forearm as well as the hand, allowing the arm to be in a position where actions can be performed swiftly. Fractures to the elbow means that the forearm bones which consists of the radius and ulna is broken, either due to a direct trauma from falls or exertion of too much force onto it. Elbow fractures will cause unwanted elbow pain and prevent normal daily actions from being accomplished and can cause severe disruptions to our daily lives. As such, fractures must be treated with utmost care to prevent long term complications.

Do not move the patient

Do not attempt to move the patient at all. Any slight movements under the intention of identifying a fracture can possible damage the surrounding soft tissues as well as cause shock which is life-threatening. In minor cases, the patient may be able to move part of his elbow but in serious cases where bone fragments are aplenty, the sharp fragments can cut into the nerves.


In any cases, try to immobilise the patient using available tools such as a thick tree branch that is washed prior to minimise infection. Using this splint, immobilise the area above and below the fracture and this will help to prevent the bone as well as the fragments from moving about, reducing the chances of them injuring the soft tissues and causing internal bleeding.

 Stop the bleeding

If there is any visible bleeding present, try to stop it by applying mild pressure to the area without causing additional trauma towards the fracture. When possible, use a sterile bandage but a clean piece of cloth will often suffice in desperate times.

 Sling the arm

Slinging the arm will help to better support the fractured elbow and reduce any additional stresses and movements at the elbow joint. Slings can be made from simple materials such as clothes and towels if you are unable to find any sterile sling bandages. Always sling the injured elbow higher than the heart to reduce swelling and bleeding.

Elbow fractures can range from minor ones to complicated ones which will possibly lead to long term complications. The first aid rendered to the patient will often have a huge impact on the recovery of the patient and improper first aid rendered can cause more problems.


Causes and Symptoms of Lumbar and Thoracic Spine Fracture

Spinal fractures are extremely serious injuries. They most commonly occur in the thoracic and lumbar spine and are usually caused by high impact and sudden forces exerted on the spine such as a car accident or a fall from high altitudes. Men are more vulnerable to either thoracic or lumbar spine fractures up to four times than that of women and the elderly are also at a higher risk due to their loss in bone density due to osteoporosis. Our bones have excellent compressive strength and a large amount of energy is required to fracture it. This would also mean that when there is lumbar or thoracic spine fracture, the surrounding soft tissues as well as the spine will definitely be injured as well, and the extent of the injury is directly proportional to the force acting on the back.

Lumbar and Thoracic spine fractures are often caused by high impact and sudden forces as mentioned previously and some commonly examples are automobile accidents, falling from great heights, injuries from high impact sports such as rugby and violent acts such as from a gunshot. Lumbar and Thoracic spine fractures are not only caused by trauma. They can be caused by ageing diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces bone density and places the patient at a high risk of bone fractures.

Some common symptoms associated with Lumbar and Thoracic spine fractures include severe pain, numbness, heavy breathing, loss of strength and loss of bladder and bowel control. Loss of bladder and bowel control are symptoms of spinal injury and if this symptom is observed, the patient must be sent to the A&E department immediately without further delay. The surrounding tissues will definitely be injured and patients may complain of muscle pain or aches which may sometime even overwhelm the back pain. This is extremely distracting and can possibly “cover up” the spinal injury and result in delayed diagnosis. Depending on the nature of the injury, some patients may even lose consciousness or have a partial memory loss. As a rule of thumb, patients who are involved in automobile accidents are automatically identified as patients with spinal injuries due to the high impact forces sustained during an automobile accident.

No matter how serious the injury is, the patient will require a lengthy rehabilitation process to allow them to regain mobility and reduce the severity of pain. If the injury was too serious, patients may lose some of their senses due to nerve injury.

Top 3 Most Common Elbow Injuries

Our elbow is basically a joint in which the humerus bone, ulna bone and the radius bone is connected together to form a joint that functions like a hinge. The radius bone and the ulna bone also enable the elbow to rotate around the forearm. The main function of the elbow is to move forward and back as well as rotate around. Tendons are connected to the elbow and they can be easily injured either due to a sudden impact or due to ageing. The elbow is one of the most easily injured parts of the body as it is like a ball and socket joint in which the ball can easily slip out of the socket. Let’s look at some of the common elbow injuries.


Elbow dislocation is one of the few serious elbow injuries that can be sustained. Dislocation is often caused by trauma or injury such as a sudden impact from full contact sports such as rugby or high falls from activities such as rock climbing. The patient will suffer an immediate loss of motion in the elbow and severe pain. Depending on the severity, the elbow may even look like it is deformed due to the bones sticking out. The bones will need to be rejoined back in the shortest possible time. Most people will try to push back the bone but this is a huge mistake as it should only be performed by highly trained medical personnel under sedation to prevent further damages to the surrounding tendons.


Fracture is another serious elbow injury and the symptoms are similar to a dislocation. It is also caused by sudden impact or fall from great heights and landing on a hand, causing the elbow to fracture. Patients will suffer a loss in range of motion but not as much as a dislocation. In more severe cases, patients may even experience numbness and this can indicate possible nerve damages. Since fractures are cracks in the bone, patients can experience a loss in blood circulation and this can be easily diagnosed by a lower temperature in the injured area or a weakened pulse.

Olecranon Bursitis

Patients who are suffering from Olecranon Bursitis will experience swelling at the elbow and will feel pain with every movement. Olecranon Bursitis is due to the inflammation of the bursa and this is often caused by overuse of the elbow or infection. This is usually due to prolonged periods of leaning on the elbow with the whole body weight leaning on it.

Elbow injuries are inevitable at some point in time of your life. However, the elbow is a part of our body which is heavily used daily and if we fail to take good care of it, it will cause much inconvenience to our daily lives.


4 Symptoms You Might Be Suffering From a Fracture

Fractures or broken bones results when the impact force is too high for the bone to withstand, causing it to crack. Fractures are straight forward injuries and it is a serious one. Our bones are structurally rigid and it is reinforced by connective tissues and calcium. Bone fractures come in different forms and severity that is dependent on the direction of the force and the extent of it as well as the patient’s age and health. There are some parts of the body that are prone to fractures and they are the areas that are frequently used and commonly occur as sports injuries. Some examples are the wrists, ankles and hip. Fractures can be either open or closed, with an open fracture being the bone being exposed through the skin while for the closed fracture, the skin is intact.

Bone fracture symptoms vary according to the area of injury as well as the severity. Some of them include:

Pain and Swelling

Pain and swelling occurs due to edema of the underlying soft tissues which are caused by the bleeding of periosteal blood vessels, causing immense pressure on the tissues. Although there are no nerves in the bones, the impact force and sometimes fragments can cause the immune system to act to destroy these “foreign materials”, causing swelling and inflammation to occur.


Bruising occurs when injuries to the blood vessels occur, damaging or even breaking them due to impact forces. The tiny bump commonly seen due to bruising are due to a combination of blood leaking out from these injured blood vessels as well as the immune system’s response to the injury.


Deformity of the injured region may occur after fracture. For example, if the shoulder is fractured, the broken bone may move out of position, making the shoulder joint look like a deformed part of the body. Very often, bone fragments can be seen sticking out and this can often be either an open or closed fracture.

Unable to use the limb.

The limb that is fractured will lose most of its capability to do even simple things like lifting up or moving around. This is due to the bones that are not connected together anymore, causing the joint to malfunction completely.
Fractures are serious medical conditions and at all times you should try to apply a cold pack to the injured region and try not to move the patient around. Immediately seek medical help and when possible, remove all clothing from the injured area.

Causes of Heel Pain

Heel pain is a very common problem experienced by many and is caused by different reasons. Patients will often suffer pain under the heel or behind the heel. Most of the time, heel pain will disappear on its own with time but in serious cases, they can become chronic problems. There are 26 bones in the human foot and the largest bone is the heel bone. The function of the heel is to provide support and balance the weight of the body. With such immense weight acting on it and various activities such as running and jumping, the heel is at a high risk of injury.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a painful result of the inflammation of the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia links the heel bones to the toes and is responsible for the arch of the boot. Plantar fasciitis can cause immense pain which increases with every additional step you take but once you warm up the leg, the pain will start to go away, coming back again after periods of immobility.

Stress Fracture

As mentioned above, the heel bone is the largest bone in the human foot and stress fractures can occur due to overuse of the heel. Continuous activity on a hard surface can also contribute to stress fractures due to the higher force environment. When the heel bone fractures under stress, it will cause immense pain at the heel region and recovery time is often lengthy.

Heel bursitis

Heel bursitis results from inflammation of the bursa which is located at the back of the heel. It is most commonly occurred when the patient lands on the heels incorrectly, injuring the tendons and bursa. Improper footwear may also contribute to heel bursitis. The pain will normally get worse as the day passes.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The Tarsal tunnel is located between the bones in the foot and the fibrous tissues in spaces. There is a nerve located at the tarsal tunnel called the posterior tibial nerve and it is protected by bones and tendons. Sudden high impact can cause stress fractures which will result in the posterior tibial nerve being pinched onto, causing pain at the heel and numbness at the region.

Heel pad inflammation

Located under the heel bone is the corpus adiposum which acts as a shock absorber to protect the heel bone. After repeated hard landings on the foot or overuse, inflammation of the corpus adiposum can occur, causing pain and discomfort. In more serious cases, haemorrhaging of the heel pad can happen. At times, simple activities like walking can also be a difficult task.

There are many different causes of heel pain and most of it is caused by overuse and lack of sufficient rest periods. The heel bone is an important part of our body and heel bone pain can restrict us from carrying out daily activities smoothly.